Evaluation of Ores

Evaluation of Ores

The methods offered in this section are suitable for the analysis of most ores and high grade materials and are typically used for advanced exploration and resource evaluation applications. The methods offered include ore grade 4 acid digestion and fusions using either sodium peroxide or lithium borate flux. Depending on the level of concentration and the accuracy required, some high grade ores may require titration or gravimetric analysis.

Evaluation of Ores

Ore Grade 4 Acid Digest Individual Elements

Modified four acid digestion including a mixture of hydrofluoric, nitric, perchloric and hydrochloric acids. Suitable for the analysis of high grade sulphide ores, this digest will dissolve silica based samples and approaches total dissolution for most minerals. However, some highly resistant refractory minerals may not be totally digested and may require a fusion to ensure complete dissolution. Ore grade four acid digestions may volatilise some elements.

A range of individual elemental options are available for selection. This option may be useful for customising your own elemental suite or when only selct elements are required.

ICP-OES

Elements and Ranges (ppm) Code
Ag 5-1000 Cr 50-10% Ni 10-60% Ti 0.01%-10% MA41OES
Al 0.05%-50% Cu 10-50% P 0.02%-50% Tl 20-5000
As 20-10% Fe 0.01%-70% Pb 20-60% V 20-2%
Ba 50-5% K 0.02%-20% S 0.01%-60% Zn 10-2%
Bi 50-10% Mg 0.02%-50% Sb 20-10% Zr 20-1%
Ca 0.01%-50% Mn 20-10% Sc 10-2%    
Cd 10-10% Mo 10-10% Sr 10-10%    
Co 10-10% Na 0.02%-20% Te 20-5000    

AAS

Elements and Ranges (ppm) Code
Ag 5-5000 Cu 0.01%-70% Pb 0.01%-70% Zn 0.01%-70% MA41AA
Co 0.01%-5% Ni 0.01%-70%        

Sodium Peroxide Fusion

The sample is fused using sodium peroxide as the flux in either zirconia or nickel crucibles. The melt is dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid and analysed by ICP-OES or ICP-MS. This process provides complete dissolution for virtually all minerals. Volatile elements are lost due to high fusion temperatures.

A range of individual elemental options are available for selection. This option may be useful for customising your own elemental suite or when only a few elements are required.

Zirconium Crucible ICP-OES

Elements and Ranges (%) Code
Al 0.01-50 Cu 0.002-40 Ni 0.005-40 V 0.002-5 FS20OES
As 0.01-10 Fe 0.01-70 Pb 0.01-60 Zn 0.01-40
B 0.01-10 K 0.05-20 S 0.05-60    
Ca 0.01-50 Mg 0.01-40 Si 0.1-40    
Cr 0.01-40 Mn 0.005-40 Ti 0.01-40    

Zirconium Crucible ICP-MS

Elements and Ranges (ppm) Code
Ag 10-2% Cs 0.05-1% Pb 20-5% Ta 0.1-50% FS20MS
As 20-20% Ga 1-5% Rb 0.5-5% Te 1-2%
Ba 1-2% Ge 1-0.1% Re 0.1-1% Th 0.1-2%
Be 1-2% In 0.1-5% Sb 0.5-10% Tl 0.5-2%
Bi 0.1-10% Li 1-20% Se 20-2% U 0.1-60%
Cd 10-5% Mo 1-10% Sn 100-50% W 1-50%
Co 1-20% Nb 2-30% Sr 20-20% Y 0.5-50%

Nickel Crucible ICP-OES

Elements and Ranges (%) Code
Al 0.01-50 Fe 0.01-70 P 0.01-40 Si 0.1-40 FS25OES
B 0.01-10 K 0.05-20 Pb 0.01-60 Ti 0.01-40
Ca 0.01-50 Mg 0.01-40 S 0.05-60 V 0.002-5

Nickel Crucible ICP-MS

Elements and Ranges (ppm) Code
Ag 2-2% Ga 1-5% Pr 0.05-10% Th 0.1-2% FS25MS
As 20-20% Gd 0.1-5% Rb 0.5-5% Tl 0.5-2%
Ba 1-2% Hf 0.1-5% Re 0.1-1% Tm 0.05-1%
Be 1-2% Ho 0.1-2% Sb 0.5-10% U 0.1-60%
Bi 0.1-10% In 0.1-5% Se 20-2% W 1-50%
Cd 1-5% La 0.2-20% Sm 0.1-10% Y 0.5-50%
Ce 0.5-30% Li 1-20% Sn 2-50% Yb 0.1-5%
Cs 0.05-1% Lu 0.05-1% Sr 20-20% Zr 5-50%
Dy 0.1-5% Nb 10-30% Ta 0.1-50%    
Er 0.1-5% Nd 0.1-20% Tb 0.05-2%    
Eu 0.1-5% Pb 20-5% Te 1-2%    

Lithium Borate Fusion

The sample is fused using a mixture of lithium meta/tetraborate flux in platinum crucibles. The melt is dissolved in dilute nitric acid and analysed by both ICP-OES and ICP-MS. This process provides complete dissolution for virtually all minerals. Samples containing high levels of Sulfur may require prior treatment but would be better analysed using method code FS20 (Sodium Peroxide Fusion).

A range of individual elemental options are available for selection. This option may be useful for customising your own elemental suite or when only select elements are required.

Platinum Crucibles ICP-OES

Elements and Ranges (%) Code
Al2O3 0.01 K2O 0.01 SiO2 0.01 FS30OES
BaO 0.01 MgO 0.01 TiO2 0.01
CaO 0.01 MnO 0.01 V 10ppm
Cr2O3 0.01 Na2O 0.01    
Fe2O3 0.01 P2O5 0.01    

Platinum Crucibles ICP-MS

Elements and Ranges (ppm) Code
Ba 5-10,000 Ga 0.5-1,000 Ni 5-50,000 Tl 0.5-1,000 FS30MS
Be 1-1000 Gd 0.05-1,000 Pr 0.05-1,000 Tm 0.05-1,000
Ce 1-10,000 Hf 0.2-10,000 Rb 0.2-10,000 U 0.05-1,000
Co 1-10,000 Ho 0.02-1,000 Sm 0.05-1,000 W 1-10,000
Cr 10-10,000 La 0.5-10,000 Sn 1-10,000 Y 1-10,000
Cu 5-10,000 Lu 0.05-1,000 Sr 0.5-10,000 Yb 0.05-1,000
Dy 0.05-1,000 Mo 2-10,000 Ta 0.1-10,000 Zr 2-10,000
Er 0.05-,000 Nb 0.5-10,000 Tb 0.05-1,000    
Eu 0.05-1,000 Nd 0.1-10,000 Th 0.05-1,000    

XRF

XRF spectrometry is used extensively by industry for the determination of a large range of mineral species. Analysis is undertaken in a fully automated, robotic preparation, fusion, LOI and XRF system using the latest of technologies.

Fe-Ore short package

Elements and Ranges (%) Code
Fe 0.01-70 P 0.001-30 SiO2 0.010-100 Al2O3 0.010-100 FS5050
CaO 0.010-100 MnO 0.010-100 MgO 0.010-100 TiO2 0.001-100
S 0.001-30 K2O 0.001-100        

Fe-Ore full package

Elements and Ranges (%) Code
Fe 0.010-70 SiO2 0.010-100 Al2O3 0.010-100 MnO 0.010-100 FS5051
P 0.001-30 S 0.001-30 CaO 0.010-100 TiO2 0.001-100
K2O 0.001-100 MgO 0.010-100 Na2O 0.007-100    
As 0.001-5 Ba 0.005-5 Cl 0.002-5 Co 0.001-5
Cr 0.001-5 Cu 0.001-5 Ni 0.001-5 Pb 0.001-5
Sn 0.005-5 Sr 0.001-5 V 0.001-5 Zn 0.001-5
Zr 0.001-5            

Fe-Ore Individual elements (client selected)

Elements and Ranges (%) Code
Fe 0.010-70 SiO2 0.010-100 Al2O3 0.010-100 MnO 0.010-100 FS50XRF
P 0.001-30 S 0.001-30 CaO 0.010-100 TiO2  0.001-100
K2O 0.001-100 MgO 0.010-100 Na2O 0.007-100    
As 0.001-5 Ba 0.005-5 Cl 0.002-5 Co 0.001-5
Cr 0.001-5 Cu 0.001-5 Ni 0.001-5 Pb 0.001-5
Sn 0.005-5 Sr 0.001-5 V 0.001-5 Zn 0.001-5
Zr 0.001-5            

Other commodity packages available upon request.

Single Point LOI

Description Element Detection Limit % / RANGE Code
Loss on ignition (1000°C) LOI-Tot 0.010-100 TGA-SP

Multi Point LOI

Description Element Detection Limit % / RANGE Code
Loss on drying LOD 0.010-100 TGA-MP
Loss on ignition (371°C/425°C) LOI-425 0.010-100 TGA-MP
Loss on ignition (650°C) LOI-650 0.010-100 TGA-MP
Loss on ignition (1000°C) LOI-1000 0.010-100 TGA-MP
Loss on ignition (Total) LOI-Tot 0.010-100 TGA-MP

Please note options for multipoint iron ore analysis stage 1 are usually 371°C or 425°C

Carbon / Sulfur Analysis

Total Carbon and Sulfur analysis by Induction Furnace

Elements and Ranges (%) Code
Total Carbon 0.01-50 INDF01
Total Sulfur 0.01-50

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